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HISTORIES

SEVERAL REGIMENTS AND BATTALIONS

NORTH CAROLINA

GREAT WAR 1861 -'65.

WRITTEN BT riEHBERS OF THE RESPECTIVE COnnflNDS

EDITED BY

WALTER CLARK,

(Lieut. Colonel Seventieth Regiment N. C. T.

VOL. V.

WITH INDEX.

PUBLISHED BY THE STATE.

NASH BROTHERS,

BOOK AND .JOB PRINTERS,

GOLDSBORO, N. C.

1901.

EH-

Chf^rLoA

THE NEV/ YORK

PUBLIC LIBRARY 2640?4

ASTOR, LENOX AND TILBSN FODNDATIOWS

R 1 90^' L

p-

DEDICATION.

IN THE NAME OF THE MORE THAN 1«5,000 frOKDlERS, LIVING AND DEAD, WHOM

Zbis State

SENT TO THE FRONT IN ONE OF THE GREATEST AND MOST

UNEQUAL^CONFLICTS RECORDED IN HISTORY,

THESE VOLUMES,

FRAUGHT WITH IH E_";TESTIM0NY OF COMRADES TO IMMORTAL COURAGE,

ARE INSCRIBEli TO THE

Iberoic Momen of IRortb Carolina,

WHO INSPIRED OUR CITIZEN SOLDIERY

BY THEIR FAITH IN GOP, BY THEIR MAGIC INFLUENCE AND

IMMEASURABLE GOOD WORKS, AND TO

Ubcir jfair iDaugbters,

WHOSE UNSHAKEN FIDELITY HAS PRESERVED THE FAME OF

®ur Glorious H)ea&.

WITH SUCH TO;iNSPIRE THE^.LIVING AND HONOR THE FALLEN THE MEN OF NORTH CAROLINA WILL EVER BE

JEqual to Dictorg— Superior to Defeat.

C0NTEMT5.

PAGE.

Dedication, ; iii

Review and Conclusion, by the Editor vii

List of Historians and Contributors, hy the Editor. xviii

Number op Troops prom North Carolina, hy the Editor 1

Number OP Generals PROM North Carolina, by the Editor . . . 3

Generals Commissioned by the State, by Lieut. E. A. Thome. . . 5

North Carolinians on Military Courts, by the Editor 8

General and Field Oppicers Killed, by Lieut. E. A. Thome. . . 9 Where North Carolina Troops Stationed November 1861,

hy Brigadier -General J. G. Martin 13

Deeds of Daring Six Heroes, hy Lieutenant- General D. H. Hill.. 15

Other Deeds op Daring, hy the Editor 1?

,A. North Carolina Heroine, hy Colonel S. L). Pool 19

captures and battles.

Capture of Forts Before the War, by Colonel Jno. L. CantwelL. 23

Battle of Manassas, by Brigadier-General T. L. Clingman 29

The Fall op Hatteras, by Major Thomas Sparrow 35

Chicamacomico, by Lieutenant- Colonel E. C. Yellowley 55

Loss op Roanoke Island, by Hon. Burgess S. Gaither, C. S. Congress, 57

Fall op Roanoke Island, by Lieutenant-Colonel E. R. Liles 63

Sharpsburg, by Lieutenant-Colonel Walter Clark 71

Battle op White Hall, by Colonel S. D. Pool 83

Flank March at Chancellorsville, by Brig. -Gen. J. H. Lane. . 93

The Wounding of Jackson, hy Adjutant Spier Whitaker 96

Another Account, by Captain A. H. H. Tolar 98

Longstreet's Assault at Gettysburg, hy Maj. W. M. Bobbins . 101 Pettigrew's Brigade at Gettysburg, by Captain Louis G. Young,

A. A. 0 113

Pettigrew's Charge at Gettysburg, hy Lieutenant- Colonel John

T. Jones 133

The Pettigrew-Pickett Charge, by Captain S. A. Ashe 137

Defence of Fort Wagner, by Adjutant E. K. Bryan and Sergeant

E. H. Meadoivs 161

Chicamauga, by Captain C. A. Cilley, A. A. G., U. S. A 169

Capture op Plymouth, by Major John W. Graham 175

Second Cold Harbor, by Brigadier-General Thos. L. Clingman 197

Reams Station, by Major Charles M. Stedman 207

The Thin Gray Line, by Brigadier-General Bradley T. Johnson . . . 213

Defence op Fort Fisher, hy Colonel William Lamb 217

The Surrender at Appomattox, by Major-General Bryan Grimes, 247

IV Contents.

The Return fkom Appomattox, hy Lieutenant W. A. Montgomery 257 Last Fifteen Days of Baker's Command, by Private James M.

Mullen 269

A Battle After the War, by Prioate R. Z. Linney 285

NORTH CAROLINA IN THE NAVY.

Confederate Vessels in North I'arolina, by the Editor 298

North Carolina Navy, hy Paymaster Adam Tredivell 299

The Ram Albemarle, by Adjutant Gilbert Elliott 315

Capture of the Underwriter, by Commander B. P. Loyall 325

The Steamer Ad- Vance, by James Maglenn, Chief Engineer 385

Running the Blockade, by Rev. Dr. Moses D. Hoge 341

The Shenandoah, by An Officer Thereof 345

Fight with Blockaders, by Colonel William Lamb 351

Blockade Running, by Purser James Sprunt 353

North Carolina's Financial Operations in England, by Com- missioner John White 453

North Carolina's Record, by Governor Z. B. Vance 463

Parole List at Appomattox, 482

Comments on Parole List, by the Editor bldt

addenda.

First North Carolina Soldier to Die, by Private R. H. Bradley 578

Sixth Regiment at Manassas, by Captain B. F. White . 581

Report OF Siiarpsburg Battlefield Commissioners, 587

First Regiment at Gettysburg, by Sergeant C. W. Rivenbark . . 595

Unparallelled Loss, by Captain R. M. Tuttle 599

Capture op Cemetery HiLt at Gettysburg, by Captain N. W. Ray 605 Incident at Gettysburg, by Col. T. S. Kenan, C. S. A., and J. B.

Callis, U. S. A., 611

Planner's Batter y^ at the Crater, by Captain H. G. Planner. . .. 615 Prisoners Under Fire at Morris Island, by Sergeant- Major C.

M. Busbee 619

Twenty-Sixth Battalion, by The Editor 626

Company B, Tenth Virginia Cavalry, by Sergeant 11. R. Berrier 627

The Home Guards, by Colonel James R. Cole 629

Home Guards Face Stoneman, by Colonel T. George Walton 635

Hillsboro Military Academy, by Cadet Captain William Cain . . . 637

HiLLSBORO Military Academy, by Cadet J. George Hanna 643

N. C. Military Institute, by Brigadier-General J. H. Lane 645

University op N. C. in the War, by Dr. K. P. Buttle 647

The Last Battle and the Last Surrender by Lieutenant- Colonel W. W. Stringfield 653

Supplement to Appomattox Parole List 657

Corrections 661

Index to Appomattox Parole List 683

Index to Illustrations 719

General Index 729

REVIEW AND CONCLUSION.

The last line of these five volumes having now been printed it is projDer to write a few lines in review and farewell to be prefixed to this, the last volume.

The origin, the purpose and the scope of this work have been stated in the Preface to Vol. 1. and need not be re- peated. In the classic tongue of historic Greece the word oida, I have seen, is at the same time both the perfect tense of the verb eido, I see, and the present tense of the verb I know. That is, ''what I have seen I know." It is upon this idea that this work has been compiled. Tlie narrative is not by one historian writing at second hand from information de- rived from many sources. But herein the narratives are by participants who have written from the personal knowledge of themselves or of their immediate comrades and largely of scenes of which they were eye witnesses.

Their contributions have l)een laboriously gathered by them from conference, or corres])ondence, with surviving comrades and diligently compared with the original reports published in the "Official Records of the Union and Confederate Ar- mies." As a further assurance of accuracy these sketches were printed in the newspapers and criticisms and correc- tions requested. It may be stated here that the dates affixed are mostly arbitrary for the majority of the regimental sketches were written in 1895, l)ut being revised again and again down to the time each went to press, the date 9 April, 1900 or 1901, was affixed to those organizations from the Army of ISTorthern Virginia and 26 April to those from the Army of the West, these being the anniversaries of the surrender of the respective armies. A few articles writ- ten by persons who died before the beginning of this work have been rej^roduced where the name of the writer or the subject matter has given them special interest.

The writers herein number 180 and represent every grade in the Army from Lieutenant General to private, and em- brace not only men who have filled almost every vocation in

viii Review and Conclusion.

life since the war but those who have occupied every civil office from IT. S. Senator and Governor to constable. Farmers, lawyers, preachers, physicians, manufacturers, teachers, edi- tors, day laborers have each and all freely contributed their time and labor to preserve herein the memorials of what their comrades did and suffered at the command of North Carolina during those four eventful years the memory of which can never be forgotten.

Among the brave men who have traced the lines in these volumes are soldiers who heard the first shriek of shell at Bethel in the first real battle of the war 10 June, 1861, and whose ears caught the patter of minies as Cox's brigade fired the last volley at Appomattox 9 April, 1865 and who missed but little of the musi,c of Avar between those dates. Among tliese writers are some who heard the o];)ening guns at Sum- ter 13 April, 1861 ; many who heard the crash of A. P. Hill's musketry on that sultry summer's eve as he drove back Burn- side at Shar])sbnrg and who listened to the long, low mono- tone of artillery at Gettysburg so steady and unbroken as to seem the ])r()l()nge(l reverberation of a single broadside; eyes now dim saw the Southern night lightened with shell and mor- tar over doomed Vicksburg; limbs now stift' stepped fast and cheerily as the echoes of Jackson's cannon rolled along the silver Shenandoah. Such another gathering can not be found in any other work and could not be duplicated now for nearly one in every ten has passed beyond the pale since their articles were penned. Their comrades of whose deeds they wrote slee]\ many of them, where the Georgian pines are bare, others l)v the Mississippi, the Cumberland, the Ohio, the Kanawha and where Potomac's breezes whispering low soothe many a soldier's endless sleep.

With a devotion to duty, only to be expected of such men, they have written these volumes and deserve the grateful re- membrance of their countrymen for this scarcely less thp.n for the gallant deeds they aided to perform and which but for their pens would have been unrecorded.

While these articles have ])een necessarily written from the stand]3oint of each writer which by a natural law makes each object and event near us seem larger and more impor-

Review and Conclusion. ix

tant than those farther oft", still there has been a strenuous and j)ainstaking effort to be accurate and truthful to the smallest detail. The work of such men could not be other than reliable. Any errors come from the lack of perspective incident to every narrative by an eye witness.

The articles are 254 in number exclusive of 165 pages em- braced in the three Indexes, i. e. Index to Appomattox Pa- role List, Index to Illustrations and the General Index. These Indexes include some 17,000 names, a very large part ■of which are cited more than once.

The history of each of our 84 regiments (which includes the ''Bethel" Regiment) is written by a member thereof except the sketches of four of the Senior Reserves Regiments and two of the Detailed men of which no suiwivors could be found. The history of each of our twenty-six Battalions is also given. The history of each brigade is written by a member thereof iind a valuable series of Battles, giving ISTorth Carolina's part therein is furnished by participants on the respective occasions. The articles on Gettysburg by Major W. M. I^obbins, Captain Louis G. Young, Captain S. A. Ashe and Lieutenant-Colonel John T. Jones as to the assault on Cemetery Ridge and by Captain X. W. Ray on the capture of Cemetery Hill are of exceptional value. An ac- count of jSTorth Carolina's share in the Xavy is herein pre- served including the story of the cruise of the Shenandoah, C()]nmanded by a gallant Xorth Carolinian who flew the Confederate battle emblem at her mast head till 6 JN'ovem- ber, 1865, nearly seven months after Lee's surrender.

The ex])crience of ju-isoners of war is graphically told in- cluding an account of those who were exposed to the fire of our own batteries at Morris Island. Governor Vance's rnemoralde speech narrating the State's record in the war, also the report of our agent sent to England to procure sup- plies are reproduced. The history of the State's steamer, the "Ad-Vairce" and a most interesting story by Mr. Sprunt of the incidents of the system of Blockade-running by which we were so long enabled to continue the war are printed for the first time.

Every subject is touched upon save the story of the sacri-

X Review and Conclusion.

llces, the services, the sufferings of our glorious and heroic women. The flight of time and the invincible modesty of the sex prevented our securing one of themselves to narrate tliat story and no man felt that his pen was equal to the por- trayal. Like Emmett's epitaph, it must remain unwritten but its abiding remembrance is in the hearts of the soldiery of the South. The dedication prefixed to the completed work in this last volume comes from the heart. They are not perfunctory words, but the exj^ression of the sentiments of the more than 125,000 soldiers, living and dead, whom North Carolina sent to the front.

The pay of the Confederate soldier in the depreciated cur- rency w^as wholly inadequate to be of any assistance to those dependent upon him at home. Mention has already been made of the cotton cards and other supplies brought in tlirougli the blockade and distributed by the State to soldiers' v.'ives. In most, if not all the counties, the county authorities procured supplies of corn, meat and salt which were stored in warehouses and dispensed weekly by boards of elderly citi- zens to the mothers, wives and children who needed assis- tance. This was not charity but just compensation to those who were absent flghting for the State without pay. Where the counties neglected this just measure there were of course large nund3ers of desertions. The soldier felt it but just tliat the government should see that his aged mother, his dependent wife and children were provided for by the State since at its command they were deprived of his labor. The salt was procured from the works at Saltville, Virginia, or from the ocean near Wilmington, the counties raising the funds by the issue of what was known as "Salt bonds." By what now seems a singular decision the Supreme Court of the State, in the Reconstruction era, held the bonds thus is- sued in aid of the destitute and suffering women and chil- dren of the State void "'because issued in aid of the Rebel- lion."

A most interesting chapter might have been added of the operation of the "'Tax in kind" by which provisions Avere obtained for the support of our armies, but as that would have required much elaboration and was a matter concerning

Review and Conclusion. xi

the xVrmy as a whole rather than the North Carolina Regi- ments and Battalions, the subject has not been treated herein.

A series of extracts from the Executive Letter Books and the files of the Adjutant-General's office 1861-5 would have added interest to this work, but it had already swelled to five volumes, and this as well as some other valuable nuitter was necessarily foregone.

The legend on the cover is no idle boast, but is based upon evidence given herein that is deemed worthy to be presented to the great jury of the public and of posterity. Major Hale's history of the ''Bethel" regiment proves, (if it had ever been called in question) North Carolina's claim to be the First at Bethel. The histories herein by Brigadier Gen- eral Cox, i\Iajor General Grimes and by Colonel Frank Par- ker of the Thirtieth regiment abundantly establish that the volley of (?ox's Brigade, of Grimes' Division vas the Last at Appomattox, the last shots being fired by the Thirtieth Regi- ment belonging to that brigade. The last capture of guns by that gallant army was the 1 Napoleons taken by Roberts' North Carolina Cavalry brigade the morning of the sur- render.

Davidson's history of the Thirty-ninth regiment, as well as Major Harper's history of the Fifty-eighth and Colonel Ray's of the Sixtieth fully demonstrate that our North Caro- lina soldiers were Farthest to the front at Chicamauga and they are corroborated by Ca])tain C. A. Cilley's report, here- in reprinted, who was a Staff Officer of Vanderveer's Brigade which faced our North Carolinians on that well fought field.

At Grttystmrg the history of the Fifty-fifth Regiment by Adjutant C. M. Cooke shows that it went farthest to the front on Cemetery Ridge. The best proof of how far a line of battle went is where it left its dead and wounded. These derelicts cast up by the bloody wave of war were found farth- est in the front of that gallant regiment and this is shown by the battlefield map prepared by the authority of the United States government after years of careful investigation of official reports and living witnesses from both armies. A copy of this official map, on a reduced scale is printed in this work.

xii Review and Conclusion.

The number of troops this State furnished is shown here- in from official records to have been over 125,000 and a full one fifth of the total force of the Confederacy. The losses of this State were over 41,000 by death on the battlefield or from wounds, being the largest loss sustained l)y any South- ern State. Though K'orth Carolina furnished one-fifth of the troops, it also appears that instead of one-fifth of the gen- eral officers being appointed from this State not one third of the pro rata, which was her due, received the promotion they . so well deserved. Yet by the general opinion in the Army Pender, Hoke, Pettigrew and perhaps others, were as com- petent to command corps and as much deserved promotion as TcUy who received the appointment of Lieutenant-General at the hands of the Confederate government. Brigadier-Gen- erals Clingiuan, Lane, James B. Gordon, Matt. W. Ransom, Scales, and others merited being made Major-Generals, and the State had many gallant sons who well earned promotion to Brigadier-General Among many such, it may not be invid- ious to name Major E. J. Hale, who (General Lane being ab- sent wounded) planned the successful movement at Fuzzell's ]yiills and virtually commanded his brigade at Reams Station, a South Carolinian (General Conner) being nominally in command Colonel R. Tyler Bennett, the hero of the Bloody Lane at Sharpsburg Colonel David Coleman in the Army of the West (to which we sent eight regiments and had no Briga- dier after General Vance's capture in 1863) Colonel Lno. S. McElroy of the Sixteenth, Colonel W. H. Cheek of the Xinth (First Cavalry) and Colonel T. M. Garrett of the Fifth all of whom w^ere recommended for this promotion. These and many others, whether recommended or not, de- served the honor and were entitled to receive it both on their own merits and from the number of troops furnished by this State. But N'orth Carolina was modest, as she always is, and did not receive just recognition which has ever been her fate, alike in war and peace.

The following admirable summary of the services of our soldiers is taken from a recent speech by the eloquent Henry A. London, now Senator from Chatham, who at the surren- der at Appomattox, w^as a member of the Thirty-second Regi-

Review and Conclusion. xiii

ment and courier to General Grimes, and carried to General Cox the order for the last volley fired by that gallant army. His words deserve preservation.

"With a white population in 1800 of 629,942 and 115,000 voters, North Carolina sent 125,000 soldiers to the Confed- erate armies, composing eighty-four regiments and eigh- teen battalions. Three of these regiments were artillery, eight cavalry and seventy-three infantry. Several of the bat- talions were artillery and cavalry. Over 41,000 were killed or died in the service. There were seven Major-Generals from this State, of whom three were killed, namely: Pen- der, Ramseur and Whiting. There were twenty-six Brig- adier Generals from this State ; four of whom were killed and the others, almost without exception, were wounded.

"The first victory was won by North Carolina troops at Bethel on 10 June, 1861, and they fired the last volley at Appomattox Court House.

''At Gettysburg 2,592 Confederates were killed and 12,707 wounded, and 3,155 Federals were killed and 14,529 were wounded. Of the killed 770 were North Carolinians, 435 Georgians, 399 Virginians, 258 Mis- sissippians, 217 South Carolinians and 204 Alabamians. The three brigades which lost more killed than any others in that battle were Pettigrew's North Carolina (which lost 190 killed) Davis', composed of three Mississippi and oi'.e North Carolina regiment, which lost 180, and Daniel's North Carolina brigade, which lost 165 killed. Pickett's entire division lost 214 killed. No brigade in Pickett's division lost as many killed and wounded as the Twenty-sixth North Carolina regiment, whose loss was 86 killed and 502 wounded, which was the heaviest loss of any regiment in either army in any battle of the war. There were sixteen brigades of Confederates in the first day's battle, of which seven were from North Carolina. In what is called 'Pick- etts' charge there were nineteen Virginia regiments and fif- teen North Carolinians. At Beams Station, in August, 1864, after the first efforts of other Confederates had failed, the three North Carolina brigades of Cooke, Lane and Mac-

xiv Review and Conclusion.

Rae, consisting of only 1,750 men, routed the enemy and captured 2,100.

"Among- the regiments which suffered the heaviest losses were the following: The Fifth jSTorth Carolina at Williams- burg, the Fourth at Seven Pines, the Third at Sharpsburg^ the Twenty-sixth at Gettysburg and the Twenty-seventh at Bristoe Station. At Williamsburg the Fifth lost in killed, wounded and missing 197 out of 240. At Seven Pines the Fourth went into battle with twenty-five oflicers and 520 non-commissioned officers and privates, and lost in killed and wounded every officer except one and 462 men. At Sharps- burg the Third lost in an hour and a half 330 out of 520. At Bristoe the Twenty-seventh lost in less than half an hour 291 out of 420. At Sharpsburg Company C, of the Fourteenth North Carolina regiment lost in killed and wounded every man of the forty-five present, and at Chan- cellorsville the same company carried in forty-three men and all were killed or wounded except one and a minie ball had lodged in his haversack. Company F of the Twenty-sixth lost at Gettysburg every man out of eighty-seven, except one and he was knocked down by the concussion of a shell.

"jSTo troops were better armed and equipped than those from Xorth Carolina, and our State was the only one that clothed her troops during the entire war. Also furnished clothing for otlier troops, and at the surrender had 92,000 suits of uniforms on hand and gi'eat stores of blankets and leather : was the only State that was engaged in direct trade witli England and running the blockade. At the close of the war North Carolina's commissary was feeding about half of Lee's army.

"The day after the battle of Manassas Secretary of War Benjamin telegraphed Governor Clark that there was not enough powder for another day's fight, and requested him to obtain nitre, which he did. In the fall of 1861 Secretary Benjamin wrote Governor Clark that it was not necessary to make large contracts for military supplies for any long time, as the war would not last long, but the Governor soon after- wards sent an agent to England to buy arms."

Over 900 engravings of officers and men, representing

Review and Conclusion. xv

them, as they looked in those days, give added interest to tliese volumes. Nearly one hundred of these mostly pri- ■\'ates (for no line has been drawn at rank) have been sent in by Judge A. W. Graham. He was too young to be in the army himself, but he had .five brothers in the service, each of whom Avas wounded and four of whom have contributed articles to this work. A very large part of the other photographs have been sent in by the mothers, wives and daughters of soldiers who with a devotion known only to a \vomaj]'s heart have pre- served these mementoes of a long-buried past, ofttimes the only relic of their dead, and taking them from their sacred repositories have had them engraved, a cost they could oft not afford, that jxjsterity might look upon the lineaments of the brave who could merit such fidelity.

The engraving of the photographs could not have been procured but for the assistance of that patriotic Southerner, iVIajor C. L. Patton, of A^ew York City, President of the University Publishing Company, wlio without leward or the hope of reward, undertook the supervision of ihe work of engraving, securing the lowest possible cost for the Veter- ans and providing, at his own expense, the clerical force to con- duct the correspondence, receiving the photographs and re- turning them to their respective owners, grouping the en- gravings and attending to every detail till the last sheet was printed oif and shipped us. Had he been a native North Carolinian he could not have done more. Our thanks are also due to his accomplished clerk, who chiefly conducted this matter. Miss P. S. Adams. To rare business accuracy she has added a woman's sympathetic assistance in this work. The engi-avings of all the thirty-five North Carolina Gen- erals have been made at Major Patton's own expense for those volumes. Fuller investigation in the Confederate Archives having shown that Major-General Jeremy P. Gil- iiier and Brigadier-General Gabriel J. Rains were appoint- ed from this State, their names have been added to the thirty- three JSTorth Carolina generals given in the preface to Vol. I, and engravings of them have been inserted in this volume.

To Colonel William Lamb, the gallant defender of Fort Fisher, we are indebted for the full page engraving of the

xvi Review and Conclusion.

''Bombardment of Fort Fisher" (the frontispiece to Vol. 5), the full page engraving of the ''Mound Battery" and other engravings. To Mr. James Sprunt the writer of the val- uable article on "Blockade Running" we are indebted for the full page engravings of the "Steamer Ad-Vance," the "Shen- andoah" and other engravings, and we owe to Colonel Thos. S. Kenan, of the Forty-third regiment, the frontispiece to Vol. 4 "Johnson's Island" (a description of which may be found in his personal reminiscences of prison life on page 689 of that volume) and also for a full page engraving of C(^mpany A of his regiment. The only other engraving of a full company is that furnished by Captain C. B. Denson in the Twentieth Regiment.

JSTumerous majDS are given which add much to the easy comprehension of the narratives. The two maps of Gettys- burg and that of the capture of Plymouth are especially val- uable.

This work undertaken more than seven years ago has been prosecuted with many hindrances. It would be bootless to relate the tribulations attending such an undertaking. Its merits are due to the efforts of the self-sacrificing patri- otic men who have written the several histories composing it. Its short-comings are due to the Editor and the limita- tions which the lapse of time and untoward circumstances have imposed.

For better, for worse, the record is now made up. The last word to the present age or posterity has been said and al- ready the voices of many who have spoken are stilled in death.

On several r)ccasions, the Confederacy was on the very eve of success, but some unexpected fatality intervened. At Shi- loh within a half hour of the capture of the Federal Army with Grant and Sherman at its head, a single bullet which caused the death of Albert Sidney Johnston changed the his- tory of the Continent. At Chancellorsville, one scattering volley fired by mistake of his own men took the life of Stone- wall Jackson, when but for that fatality the capture of Hooker and his whole army was inevitable. The unexpected humiliation of the Federal Government in surrendering

Review and Conclusion. xvii

Mason and Slidell to British threats avoided a war with that power and with it the independence of the South, which would have come with the command of the seas which was within the power, at that time, of Britain's fleet. If Stuart's cavalry had been on hand at Gettysburg, or even a competent Corps commander to have held our gains of the first two days, in all human probability the war would have ended in a great Southern victory at that spot. Had Mr. Davis, when he sent his commissioners to Englanci to negotiate a loan of $15,000,- 000, acceded to the pressure of foreign capitalists to make it $000,000,000, not only would the Southern finances not have broken down (which was the real cause of our defeat) and Southern troops have been amply supplied, but European governments would have intervened in favor of Southern In- dependence ere they would have suffered their influential capitalists to lose that sum. They have always intervened ererywhere for such cause.

There were other occasions besides when a contrary event vould have brought about Independence. Xo troops in all history have fought better nor has any people shown better military qualities. But, as jSTapier said of Xapoleon, "For- tune, that name for the unknoirn comhinations of an infinite power, was wanting to us and without her aid, the desigms of man are as bubbles on a troubled ocean."

Historical experience in other countries has been that the disbanded soldiers after a long war, having contracted habits of idleness, have been a source of long continued disturbance. Xot so with the Confederate veterans who at once went to work to repair the ravages of war and rebuild the fortunes of their sorely devastated country. Xot only that, but they were the mainstay of order and in many places when the discarded camp-followers of the other side were not restrain- ed by the commanders of that army, these were sternly given to understand that if order was not otherwise maintained, tlie ex-Confederates could and would establish it.

Unawed by garrisons of the victorious army, and unse- dueed by the blandishments and temptations offered them, these soldiers of a Lost Cause took their stand for Anglo-

xviii Review and Conclusion.

Saxon civilization and saved the South from the fate of Hayti and the West Indies. Their services in the years suc- ceeding- the war were as truly great and as worthy of lasting gratitude as those rendered from 1861 to 1865.

The youngest who wore the gray have crossed the crest of the narrow ridge that divides two great oceans and already, like Balboa, they have descried from the western slope the wide waste of waters which reaches beyond the sunset. Xot many years shall pass ere the last of those who followed the fortunes of Lee and Jackson, of Johnston and Forrest shall have set sail on that shoreless sea, and the last footfall of the tread of the old Confederate regiments whose march shook a Continent shall be echoing in eternity. Then these volumes ?]iall preserve to a distant posterity the memory of a courage and a patriotism and a spirit of self-sacrifice which our sons should not willingly let die.

My Comrades, to have been deemed worthy of labor for you and with you is honor enough for any man. To one and all I give my thanks for your groat patience and your U7i- failing courtesy.

Raleigh, N. C, ' / .i:2^

31 December, 1901.

Errata. There are over 1,000 engravings (instead of 900 as above stated) of which 13 are full page engravings and there are 32 maps.

LIST OF HISTORIANS AND CONTRIBUTORS.

By the editor.

For information, to tlie following list of contribntors is appended a memo- randum of the occupation of each since the war. Where one has held official position, only the higliest is given. There are 179 writers exclusive of the editor and :ii54 articles, including those written by him. The writers held, it will be noted, every position in the army from Lieutenant-General to pri- vate, and since the war have distributed themselves among nearly all the professions and ordinary occupations of life.

Aiken, R. A., Captain Vol. IV, p. 117

Merchant, Murphy, N. C.

Albright. Jno G., Lieutenant IV 99

Merchant, County Commissioner. Died 1890.

Alexander, J. W., Lieut -Commander C. S. N .IV 733

Died Liucolnton. N. C, 1898.

Ashe, S. A. , Captain A. A. G V— 137

Member Gen. Assembly 1870. Ed. Observer, Lawyer, Raleigh, N. C.

Avery, A C, Major 1—337, IV— 371

Judge Superior Court 1878-1889, Judge Supreme Court 1889- 1897. Morganton, N. C.

Bailey, Isaac H. , Captain Ill— 447

In Business, Bakersville, N. C.

Barringer, Rufus, Brigadier-General I 417

State Senator 1852, Chairman Rep. St. Exec. Com. Died 3 Feb- ruary, 1895.

Battle, Kemp. P., Member Con v. 1861 V 647

Public Treasurer 18ti()-'7, President University 1875; Prof. History University N. C. since 1891.

Beall, Jas. F, Major 11—129

Member Gen. Ass. 1883. Physician, Davidson County.

Bennett, R. T., Colonel 1—705

Judge Superior Court 1880, M. C. 1880-'84.

Berrier, H. R., Sergeant V 627

Farmer, Davidson County.

Betts, a. D , Chaplain IV— 597

Methodist Minister, Sampson County, N. C.

Bradley, Robt. H., Private V 577

Marshal Supreme Court since 1879.

Brenizer, A G, Colonel IV— 131

Bank Officer, Charlotte, N. C.

Broadfoot, Chas. W.. Colonel IV 9

Member Gen. Ass. N. C, 1870-72, Lawyer, Fayetteville.

Brown, H. A., Colonel 1—185

Prominent Citizen and Capitalist, Columbia, Tenn.

Brown, T. J. , Major 11—789

In business, Winston, N. C.

Bryan, E. K., Adjutant II— 507, V— 161

In business, New Bern, N. C.

XX Historians and Contributors.

BuRGWY-N, W. H. S. . Captain 11—591, IV— 481, 569

Col. 7th Md. Regt., Col. 2nd N. C. Regiment Spanish War, Au- thor Md. Digest, Lawyer, Bank President, Weldon, N. C.

BusBEE, Fabius H , Lieutenant IV 583

U. S. District Attorney, Raleigh, N. C.

BusBEE, C. M.. Sergeant-Major 1—281, V— 619

State Senator 1874, Grand Sire Odd Fellows 1890, President State Bar Association 1901-2, Raleigh, N. C.

Caho, W. T. , Sergeant Ill— 725

State Senator 1874, Lawyer, Bayboro, N. C.

Cain, William, Cadet Captain V— 637

I'rofessor University of N. C, Chapel Hill.

Callis, G. B., Brigadier General U. S. A., V— 611

Member CouKitss Wisconsin. Died 1897

Cantwell, Jno. L , Colonel IV— 721, V— 23

Veteran also Mexican War, Secretary . Produce Exchange, Wil- mington, N. C.

Carr, Julian S., Private IV 581

One of Founders Blackwell's Mfg ' o.. Commander State Veterans As- sociaiiou, Millionaire. Durham, N. C.

Cathey, B. H. , Lieutenant I 751

In business. Bryson City, N. C.

Cheek, W. H., Colonel 1—445, 775

Lawyer, Henderson, N. C. Died 23 March, 1901.

CiLLEY, C. A , Captain U. S. A V— 169

Judge Superior Court N. C. 1867-8. Died 1898.

Clingman, Thomas L., Brigadier-General V— 29, 197

Resigned from U. S. Senate 1861, to join C. S. A. Died 3 No- vemt)er, 1897.

CoLE, James R., Colonel . . .V— 629

Supt. Military School, Dallas, Texas.

CooKE, Charles M., Adjutant Ill— 287

State Senator 1874; Solicitor 1877-8; Secretary of State 1895-7; Lawyer, Louisburg, N. C.

Cowan. John, Captain 1—177

Secretary Board of Audit and Finance, Wilmington, N. C. Died 1900.

Cox, W. R., Brigadier-General IV 443

Judge Super.or Court 1877-80; M. C. 1881-87; Secretary U. S. Senate 1894-1900; Farmer and Lawyer, Edgecombe Co., N. C.

Cross, J. F. , Lieutenant IV 703

Farmer, Sunbury, N. C.

Gumming, James D., (.'aptain IV 861

in business Brooklyn, N. Y. Died January, 1902.

Daves, Graham, Adjutant II 161

Author and Man of Letters, New Bern, N. C.

Davidson, Jno. M. , 11—727

R. R. Agent, Farmer. Kingston, Georgia.

Davidson, Theo. F. , Lieutenant ... II 699

Att'y General N. C. 1884-92; Mayor of Asheville 1895.

Davis, T. C. Sergeant 11—745

Postmaster, Morehcad, N. C.

Denson, C. B., Captain IV— 409

Teacher, Sec'y N. C. Ag'l. Society, Raleigh, N. C.

DeRossett. W. L. , Colonel I 215

Commander State Veteran Association 1896-7, Wilmington, N. C.

Dixon, B. F. , Captain Ill— 151

State Auditor N. C. 1901; Major Second N. C. Reg't 1898 (Span- ish War).

Historians and Contributors. xxi

Ellington, J. C. , Lieutenant Ill 161

Civil Engineer City of Raleigti.

Elliott, Chas. G., Captain IV— 527

Treasurer N. & C. R. R. Died 14 August, 1901.

Elliott, Gilbert, Adjutant V 315

Lawyer, St. Louis, Mo., and New York. Died 9 May, 1895.

Evans, .1. W., Corporal Ill— 713

Register of Deeds Dare Co., Merchant, Manteo, N. C.

Ferguson, Garland S. , Lieutenant ... II 291

Solicitor 12th District 1879-1892, State Senator 1876, Waynes- ville, N. C.

Flanner, Henry G. . Captain V 617

Druggist, Wilmington, N. C. Died 1885.

Flowers, Geo. W., Lieutenant- Colonel ... II 675

Merchant, Taylorsville, N. C.

Frazier, F. C, Lieutenant IV 335

Farmer, High Point, N. C.

Gaither, Bi'rgess S , V 57

Member Congress C. S., Lawyer, Morganton, N. C. Died 1892.

Galloway, Jno. M Ill— 529

Prominent Citizen, Madison, N. C.

Gordon, A., Major 1—3, 23, 37, 39, 45

Planter, Hulda, La.

Graham, James A. , Captain 11—425, IV— 501

Lawyer, State Senator 1872; Washington, D. C.

Graham, John W , Major V 1 75

Member State Convention 1868; State Senator 1868-'9; and 1876-'77; Lawyer, Hillsboro, N. C.

Graham, Robt D. , Captain Ill— 313

Chief of Bureau, Dept. Interior; Lawyer, Washington, D. C.

Graham, W. A. Major 1—50, II— 79

Planter. Lincoln Co.. N. C. Several times in N. C. Legislature, President Farmers' Alliance. Son of Hon. W. A. Graham, C. S. Senator and brother of Major Jno. W. Graham, Captain Robert D. Graham and Captain Jas. A. Graham, who are also Historians in this work.

Green, AVharton J., Lieutenant-Colonel IV 243

Member of Congress 1883-87; Farmer, Fayetteville, N. C.

Grimes. Bryan, Major General V 247

Farmer, Pitt County; Assassinated 14 August, 1880.

Grizzard, James M., Captain IV 645

Member Gen. Ass. 1895; Lawyer. Died 1901.

Hale, E. J . Major 1—69

Consul to Manchester, England ; Ed. Fayetteville Observer.

Hampton, E. R , Hospital Steward IV— 385

Clerk U. S. Dist. Court 1870-1884. Lawyer, Sylva, N. C.

Hannah, J. George V— 643

Insurance Agent, Slier City, N. C.

Harper, G. W. F., Major Ill— 431

In Gen. Ass. 1881; Prest. Lenoir N. G. R. R. 1894; Prest. Bank Lenoir, N. C.

Habrill, L. . Captain I 771

Prominent Physician. Statesville, N. C.

Habbis, J. S. . Capt. , 1—361

Wounded three times. Merchant, Davidson College, N. C.

Hill, D. H , Lieutenant-General V— 15

President Uni. of Arkansas. Died 25 September, 1889.

Hill, Joshua B. , Sergeant 11—767

U. S. Marshal, Raleigh, N. C.

XXII Historians and Contributors.

HiNES, Peter E., Surgeon IV— 623

Prominent Physician, Raleigh, N. C.

Hinsdale John W. , Colonel IV 35

Prominent Lawyer, Raleigh, N. C.

HoGE, Rev. Dr. Moses D . V— 341

Presbyterian Minister, Richmond, Va. Died 6 January, 1898.

Holt. E. J., Lieutenant IV— 91, 580

Sheriff Johnston Co.; Member Gen. Ass. 1874-8; Merchant, Smithfield.

Johnson, Bradley T., Brigadier-General V 213

Lawyer, Baltimore, Md.

Johnston, Jos. F. , Lieutenant IV 531

Governor of Alabama 1898-'9.

Jones, Hamilton C, Colonel Ill 405

state Senator 1809-1871; U. S. Dist. Atty. 1884-88; Lawyer; Char- lotte, N. C.

Jones, John T. , Lieutenant-Colonel V 133

Killed 0 May, 1864, at the Wilderness.

Kearney, H. C, Lieutenant I 733

Sheriff of Franklin Co. since 1878, Louisburg, N. C.

Kenan, Thos. S., Colonel Ill— 1, 19, IV— 689, V— 611

Attorney-General 1876-1884; Clerk Supreme Court since 1887, Raleigh, N. C.

Kennedy, John T., Colonel IV— 71, 370

Member Gen. Ass., Farmer, Goldsboro, N. C.

Lamb, William. Colonel 11-629, V— 317, 351

Prominent business man, Norfolk, Va.

Lamb, Wilson G., Lieutenant II 1

Merchant, Wllliamston, N. C.

Lane, James H., Brigadier-General 11—465, IV— 465, V— 93, 645

Prof. A. & M. College, Auburn, Ala.

Lattimore. Thos. D., II 581

Clerk Superior Court Cleveland Co.; Treasurer Manufacturing Co., Shelby, N. C.

Lawhon, W. H. H, Captain III-113

Meni!)er Gen. Ass. 1897; Baptist Minister, Moore Co., N. C.

LiLES, E. R., Lieutenant-Colonel ... V— 63

Farmer, Anson Co. Died about 1894.

LiNNEY, Romulus Z., V— 285

State Senator; M.